The dramatic prevalence of Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) across western and northern India is proportional to other endemic conditions in these states, with the highest cattle mortality reported in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Stray cattle.
Although the primary mode of transmission of Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) virus is mechanical through vectors such as mosquitoes, flies, ticks, and lice, it is transmitted indirectly from infected animals through their milk or nasal and lacrimal secretions, saliva, and blood. Sick animals share the same watering and feeding areas and are kept in unsanitary conditions where pathogens breed, which can be transmitted both ways.
One of the main reasons for the rapid spread of LSD was unseasonably heavy rains in July, which triggered an explosion in the population of these vectors. But scientists point out that another big reason for the spread of unruly numbers of stray cattle in these states.
The presence of stray animals and their free movement makes it easy for disease to spread from infected to healthy animals. In an effort to prevent the spread of LSD on their own farms, farmers also left their sick cattle on the streets, adding to the number of cattle that wandered the streets, exacerbating the spread of the virus.
Livestock most susceptible to LSD are immunocompromised, housed primarily in overcrowded gausalas marked by high numbers of stray and malnourished stray cattle and unsanitary living conditions and chronic lack of fodder, water and animal care.
Non-productive animals often include street cattle that have been returned to the streets by their owners because they have stopped producing milk or are unable to work, or because the animal is too sick. As these states have strict no-slaughter laws, there are no buyers of these animals, which prevents any kind of trade in non-productive animals.